This volume deals with the religions of the Roman soldiers in Britain and the religious interactions of soldiers and civilians. Drawing on epigraphic and archaeological evidence, the discussion shows the complexities of Roman, Eastern, and Celtic rites, how each system influenced the ritual and liturgy of the others, and how each system was altered over time. The first part presents discursive chapters on topics such as the cult of the emperor, Mithraism in Britain, the cults of Celtic warriors and healers, the Romanization of Civilian religions, and Christianity; the second part consists of an annotated catalogue of the epigraphical sources. Of significance is the broad range of materials synthesized to show the extent to which native religions influenced and were influenced by imported Roman and Eastern cults.
In contemporary political discourse, it is common to denounce violent acts as “terroristic.” But this reflexive denunciation is a surprisingly recent development. In A Genealogy of Terror in Eighteenth-Century France, Ronald Schechter tells the story of the term’s evolution in Western thought, examining a neglected yet crucial chapter of our complicated romance with terror.
For centuries prior to the French Revolution, the word “terror” had largely positive connotations. Subjects flattered monarchs with the label “terror of his enemies.” Lawyers invoked the “terror of the laws.” Theater critics praised tragedies that imparted terror and pity. By August 1794, however, terror had lost its positive valence. As revolutionaries sought to rid France of its enemies, terror became associated with surveillance committees, tribunals, and the guillotine. By unearthing the tradition that associated terror with justice, magnificence, and health, Schechter helps us understand how the revolutionary call to make terror the order of the day could inspire such fervent loyalty in the first place—even as the gratuitous violence of the revolution eventually transformed it into the dreadful term we would recognize today. Most important, perhaps, Schechter proposes that terror is not an import to Western civilization—as contemporary discourse often suggests—but rather a domestic product with a long and consequential tradition.
Lexical borrowing and deborrowing in Spanish in New York City: Towards a synthesis of the social correlates of lexical use and diffusion in immigrant contexts
Lexical Borrowing and Deborrowing in Spanish in New York City provides a sociodemographic portrait of lexical borrowing in Spanish in New York City.
Robert Trent Vinson
In an excellent addition to the Ohio Short Histories of Africa series, Robert Trent Vinson recovers the important but largely forgotten story of Albert Luthuli, Africa’s first Nobel Peace Prize winner and president of the African National Congress from 1952 to 1967. One of the most respected African leaders, Luthuli linked South African antiapartheid politics with other movements, becoming South Africa’s leading advocate of Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolent civil disobedience techniques. He also framed apartheid as a crime against humanity and thus linked South African antiapartheid struggles with international human rights campaigns.
Unlike previous studies, this book places Luthuli and the South African antiapartheid struggle in new global contexts, and aspects of Luthuli’s leadership that were not previously publicly known: Vinson is the first to use new archival evidence, numerous oral interviews, and personal memoirs to reveal that Luthuli privately supported sabotage as an additional strategy to end apartheid. This multifaceted portrait will be indispensable to students of African history and politics and nonviolence movements worldwide.
Virginia Woolf, Suzanne Raitt, and Ian Blyth
Orlando, a novel loosely based on the life of Vita Sackville-West, Virginia Woolf's lover and friend, is one of Woolf's most playful and tantalizing works. This edition provides readers with a fully collated and annotated text. A substantial introduction charts the birth of the novel in the romance between Woolf and Sackville-West, and the role it played in the evolution and eventual fading of that romance. Extensive explanatory notes reveal the extent to which the novel is embedded in Woolf's knowledge of Sackville-West, her family history and her writings. Thorough annotation of every literary and historical allusion in the text establishes its significance as a parodic literary and social history of England, as well as a spoof of one of Woolf's favorite forms, the biography. It also includes all variants from the extant proofs, as well as editions of the novel produced during Woolf's lifetime.
Citizens of Memory explores efforts at recollection in post-dictatorship Argentina and the hoped-for futures they set in motion. The material, visual, narrative, and pedagogical interventions it analyzes address the dark years of state repression (1976-1983) while engaging ongoing debates about how this traumatic past should be transmitted to future generations. Two theoretical principles structure the book’s approach to cultural recall: the first follows from an understanding of memory as a social construct that is always as much about the past as it is of the present; the second from the observation that what distinguishes memory from history is affect. These principles guide the study of iconic sites of memory in the city of Buenos Aires; photographic essays about the missing and the dictatorship’s legacies of violence; documentary films by children of the disappeared that challenge hegemonic representations of seventies’ militancy; a novel of exile that moves recollection across national boundaries; and a human rights education program focused on memory. Understanding recollection as a practice that lends coherence to disparate forces, energies, and affects, the book approaches these spatial, visual, and scripted registers as impassioned narratives that catalyze a new attentiveness within those they hail. It suggests, moreover, that by inciting deep reflection and an active engagement with the legacies of state violence, interventions like these can help advance the cause of transitional justice and contribute to the development of new political subjectivities invested in the construction of less violent futures.
Mary C. English and Georgia Irby
Featuring a traditional, grammar-based approach, A New Latin Primer offers beginning students a solid overview of Latin grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. It provides concise, straightforward grammatical explanations and illustrates them with unadapted Latin examples so that students can learn from Roman authors how to employ the syntax under discussion. Each of the thirty-six lessons contains twelve short practice sentences along with fifteen passages of unadapted Latin from a wide variety of important classical and medieval authors: Catullus, Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Martial, Caesar, Cicero, Livy, Sallust, Tacitus, Augustus, Seneca, Pliny the Younger, Pliny the Elder, Augustine, Bede, inter alios. Explanatory notes and definitions of unfamiliar vocabulary appear immediately below the passages. All of the passages in a single lesson are tailored to one or two aspects of Roman culture or history, demonstrating how the study of Latin provides first-hand access to the texts that shape our understanding of the Roman world.
Ideal for use in introductory courses, as a self-study volume, or as an intensive review, A New Latin Primer is accompanied by a Student Workbook and a Companion Website that contain a variety of drills, additional practice sentences, translation practice, and word games. An Instructor's Resource Manual is also available to adopters.
Richard S. Lowry
A new angle on Lincoln and his legacy, exploring the rich and suggestive dialogue between art, image, and politics at the time of the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln was one of the most photographed figures of his century. Richard Lowry explores Lincoln’s association with Alexander Gardner, the man who would create the most memorable and ultimately iconic images of the president, both in his studio and on the battlefields of the Civil War. Lowry’s book is an accessible and lively narrative of this symbiotic relationship and an examination of the emerging role of the media at a moment of national transformation. Lincoln was an early adopter of photographic technology and visionary in how he used it—as FDR was with radio, JFK with television, and Obama with the internet. By highlighting this very modern aspect of such a storied presidency, Lowry opens a new door on Lincoln’s relationship to politics and celebrity just as the mass culture of the image was taking root in America.
As Turkey pushes for its place in the global pecking order and embraces neoliberal capitalism, the nation has seen a period of unprecedented shifts in political, religious, and gender and sexual identities for its citizens. In New Desires, New Selves, Gul Ozyegin shows how this social transformation in Turkey is felt most strongly among its young people, eager to surrender to the seduction of sexual modernity, but also longing to remain attached to traditional social relations, identities and histories. Engaging a wide array of upwardly-mobile young adults at a major Turkish university, Ozyegin links the biographies of individuals with the biography of a nation, revealing their creation of conflicted identities in a country which has existed uneasily between West and East, modern and traditional, and secular and Islamic. For these young people, sexuality, gender expression, and intimate relationships in particular serve as key sites for reproducing and challenging patriarchy and paternalism that was hallmark of earlier generations. As Ozyegin evocatively shows, the quest for sexual freedom and an escape from patriarchal constructions of selfless femininity and protective masculinity promise both personal transformations and profound sexual guilt and anxiety. A poignant and original study, New Desires, New Selves presents a snapshot of cultural change on the eve of rapid globalization in the Muslim world.
Charles J. Palermo
Modernism and Authority presents a provocative new take on the early paintings of Pablo Picasso and the writings of Guillaume Apollinaire. Charles Palermo argues that references to theology and traditional Christian iconography in the works of Picasso and Apollinaire are not mere symbolic gestures; rather, they are complex responses to the symbolist art and poetry of figures important to them, including Paul Gauguin, Charles Morice, and Santiago Rusiñol. The young Picasso and his contemporaries experienced the challenges of modernity as an attempt to reflect on the lost relation to authority. For the symbolists, art held authority by revealing something compelling—something to which audiences must respond lest they lose claim to their own moral authority. Instead of the total transformation of the reader or viewer that symbolist creators envision, Picasso and Apollinaire imagine a divided self, responding only partially or ambivalently to the work of art’s call. Navigating these problems of symbolist art and poetry entails considering the nature of the work of art and of one’s response to it, the modern subject’s place in history, and the relevance of historical truth to our methodological choices in the present.
Regina A. Root and Horacio Pons
ica a la moda en el mapa de la historia, que es exactamente donde debe estar.” Journal of Latin American Studies
Ganadora del prestigioso Premio Whitaker, Vestir la nación analiza el lugar de la moda en la Argentina entre la Revolución de Mayo y fines del siglo XIX. Como en toda escena revolucionaria, los años posteriores a 1810 estuvieron pautados por una intensa explosión creativa, decisiva para sentar las bases de la futura identidad colectiva.
Desde allí, Regina A. Root rastrea el papel simbólico y codificado de la moda más allá del mundo doméstico y devela que esa identidad se expresó primero en la vestimenta que en la política. ¿Cómo vestirse, si uno era un patriota y quería diferenciarse de las reliquias del colonialismo español? ¿De qué modo significar, desde la ropa, que se estaba frente a un nuevo tiempo? ¿Qué debían usar las mujeres y qué rol jugaron los peinetones? ¿Cuál debía ser el diseño de los uniformes militares?
Estas encrucijadas culturales estuvieron lejos de apaciguarse tras la primera década revolucionaria. De hecho se profundizaron y marcaron dos caminos muy diversos con los unitarios y federales; se afianzaron aún más durante el rosismo (con la obligación de llevar un uniforme de civil y la famosa divisa punzó); y ayudaron a la emancipación de la mujer en la época de la Organización Nacional, entre 1860 y 1890.
Con una escritura deliciosa y una deslumbrante investigación de archivo, Regina A. Root descubre un mundo fascinante y sorpresivo, que hasta ahora la historia, y por lo tanto nosotros, había pasado prácticamente por alto. Vestir la nación es un espejo cultural de la Argentina del siglo XIX. Revela de qué modo se tramaron en la moda la controversia política y las costumbres, las ideologías y la pugna entre el conservador régimen colonial, cuyos valores no desaparecieron de inmediato, y los ideales de una nación naciente. Pone de manifiesto, en suma, las tensiones históricas que la moda refleja y el modo en que ese campo, donde se cruzan el arte y la mundanidad, se creó al calor de batallas militares y disputas retóricas.
The Difficult Art of Giving rethinks standard economic histories of the literary marketplace. Traditionally, American literary histories maintain that the post-Civil War period marked the transition from a system of elite patronage and genteel amateurism to what is described as the free literary market and an era of self-supporting professionalism. These histories assert that the market helped to democratize literary production and consumption, enabling writers to sustain themselves without the need for private sponsorship. By contrast, Francesca Sawaya demonstrates the continuing importance of patronage and the new significance of corporate-based philanthropy for cultural production in the United States in the postbellum and modern periods.
Focusing on Henry James, William Dean Howells, Mark Twain, Charles Chesnutt, and Theodore Dreiser, Sawaya explores the notions of a free market in cultural goods and the autonomy of the author. Building on debates in the history of the emotions, the history and sociology of philanthropy, feminist theory, and the new economic criticism, Sawaya examines these major writers' careers as well as their rich and complex representations of the economic world. Their work, she argues, demonstrates that patronage and corporate-based philanthropy helped construct the putatively free market in literature. The book thereby highlights the social and economic interventions that shape markets, challenging old and contemporary forms of free market fundamentalism.
Amy A. Quark
As the economies of China, India, and other Asian nations continue to grow, these countries are seeking greater control over the rules that govern international trade. Setting the rules carries with it the power to establish advantage, so it’s no surprise that everyone wants a seat at the table—or that negotiations over rules often result in stalemates at meeting of the World Trade Organization.
Nowhere is the conflict over rule setting more evident than in the simmering “standards wars” over the rules that define quality and enable the adjudication of disputes. In Global Rivalries, Amy A. Quark explores the questions of how rules are made, who makes them, and how they are enforced, using the lens of cotton—a simple commodity that has become a poignant symbol of both the crisis of Western rule making power and the potential for powerful new rivals to supplant it. Quark traces the strategies for influencing rule making processes employed not only by national governments but also by transnational corporations, fiber scientists, and trade associations from around the globe. Quark analyzes the efficacy of their approaches and the implications for more marginal actors in the cotton trade, including producers in West Africa.
By placing the current contest within the historical development of the global capitalist system, Global Rivalries highlights a fascinating interaction of politics and economics.
Ronald Schechter and Liz Clarke
Inspired by the resounding success of Abina and the Important Men (OUP, 2011), Mendoza the Jewcombines a graphic history with primary documentation and contextual information to explore issues of nationalism, identity, culture, and historical methodology through the life story of Daniel Mendoza. Mendoza was a poor Sephardic Jew from East London who became the boxing champion of Britain in 1789. As a Jew with limited means and a foreign-sounding name, Mendoza was an unlikely symbol of what many Britons considered to be their very own "national" sport. Whereas their adversaries across the Channel reputedly settled private quarrels by dueling with swords or pistols--leaving widows and orphans in their wake--the British (according to supporters of boxing) tended to settle their disputes with their fists.
Historical Overview of Africans and African Americans in Yorktown, at the Moore House, and on Battlefield Property, 1635-1867 Colonial National Historical Park, vol 1
Julie Richter and Jody Allen
In 2008, Colonial National Historical Park updated the Yorktown Long Range Interpretive Plan. At the stakeholders' workshop, the "untold" story of African Americans and slavery was identified as a priority for future interpretive programs. In order to accurately interpret this aspect of Yorktown's history, a study focusing on the African Americans who worked and lived in the area within the Yorktown unit of the park was needed. The study would focus on the primary periods of significance, from the colonial period to the establishment of the Yorktown National Cemetery, with emphasis on the primary sources associated with the park's resources. With funding from the park's Eastern National donation, historians Julie Richter and Jody Allen were selected to prepare this study. Ms. Richter is a lecturer with the Lyon G. Tyler Department of History and the National Institute of American History and Democracy at the College of William and Mary. She was the project historian for the Yorktown Archaeological Overview and Assessment and is the editor of the Enslaving Virginia Resource Book (Colonial Williamsburg, 1998). Ms. Allen is a Visiting Assistant Professor of History and the Managing Director and CoChair of the Lemon Project at the College of William and Mary. The findings of this study will be used in the development of exhibits, waysides, and formal programs conducted by park staff. Recommendations for additional research were provided by the authors. I would like to acknowledge the assistance of the following Colonial National Historical Park staff members in reviewing and preparing the report for publication, Diane Depew, Catharyn Ryan, and Dave Frederick.
Historical Overview of Africans and African Americans in Yorktown, at the Moore House, and on Battlefield Property, 1635-1867 Colonial National Historical Park, vol 2
Julie Richter and Jody L. Allen
The situation for African Americans in Yorktown did not improve much during the antebellum period. The possibility of being willed, sold, or mortgaged by a slaveholder remained. William Vail is one ex.ample. Vail had over thirty slaves and mongaged some or all of them at some point. When Vail died in 1834, he owned several lots in Yorktown but gave permission in his will to sell Ambrose, Caesar, Lucy, Bob, and Tom Bailey, if necessary to pay his debts. He left his wife, Louisa, William, Alfred, Molly, Carlia, Charlotte, Alice and her three children, as well as his "man Tom," his "old woman Sue," and the future increase of the female slaves.20 The fate of Vail's slaves is not clear. Again, control of the black population, whether enslaved or free, remained the goal for whites. Free blacks were required to register their presence at the county courthouse. From a twenty first century perspective, this law appears intrusive, but in the nineteenth century, it was also a way for free blacks to protect themselves if their status ever came into question. York County's registry of free blacks provides an interesting picture of blacks in this period. The registry provided names, physical descriptions, the name of the person who freed the individual, unless born free, and often the surname of the former slave.
Robert Trent Vinson
For more than half a century before World War II, black South Africans and “American Negroes”—a group that included African Americans and black West Indians—established close institutional and personal relationships that laid the necessary groundwork for the successful South African and American antiapartheid movements. Though African Americans suffered under Jim Crow racial discrimination, oppressed Africans saw African Americans as free people who had risen from slavery to success and were role models and potential liberators.
Many African Americans, regarded initially by the South African government as “honorary whites” exempt from segregation, also saw their activities in South Africa as a divinely ordained mission to establish “Africa for Africans,” liberated from European empires. The Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association, the largest black-led movement with two million members and supporters in forty-three countries at its height in the early 1920s, was the most anticipated source of liberation. Though these liberation prophecies went unfulfilled, black South Africans continued to view African Americans as inspirational models and as critical partners in the global antiapartheid struggle.
The Americans Are Coming! is a rare case study that places African history and American history in a global context and centers Africa in African Diaspora studies.
Mary C. English and Georgia Irby
Covering an extensive variety of grammatical constructions, A Little Latin Reader is an ideal supplement for undergraduate courses in beginning and intermediate Latin. It presents vivid, unadapted passages, each two to ten lines in length, drawn from the poetry and prose of various Classical authors--including Caesar, Catullus, Cicero, Martial, Ovid, and Vergil--and from inscriptions. The selections are arranged according to the specific points of grammar and syntax that they demonstrate. By introducing unadapted Latin at the earliest stage of language instruction, A Little Latin Reader helps students transition more easily from beginning and intermediate Latin textbooks to authentic Latin prose and poetry.
Robert B. Archibald and David H. Feldman
College tuition has risen more rapidly than overall inflation for much of the past century, and in recent years this growth has accelerated. The rhetoric of crisis now permeates public discussion of the cost of attendance. Much of what is written ties rapidly rising tuition to dysfunctional behavior in the academy. Common examples include prestige games among universities, gold-plated amenities, and bloated administration. This book offers a different view, one that places higher education firmly within the larger economic history of the United States. A technological trio of broad economic forces has come together in the last thirty years to cause higher education costs, and costs in many other important service industries, to rise much more rapidly than the inflation rate. The main culprit is economic growth itself. This finding does not mean that all is well in American higher education. A college education has become less reachable to a broad swath of the American public at the same time that the market demand for highly educated people has soared. This affordability problem has deep roots. The book explores how cost pressure, the changing wage structure of the U.S. economy, and the complexity of financial aid policy combine to reduce access to higher education below what we need in the 21st-century labor market. This book is a call to calm the rhetoric of blame and to find instead policies that will increase access to higher education while preserving the quality of our colleges and universities.
Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South
The meaning of race in the antebellum southern United States was anchored in the racial exclusivity of slavery (coded as black) and full citizenship (coded as white as well as male). These traditional definitions of race were radically disrupted after emancipation, when citizenship was granted to all persons born in the United States and suffrage was extended to all men. Hannah Rosen persuasively argues that in this critical moment of Reconstruction, contests over the future meaning of race were often fought on the terrain of gender.
Sexual violence--specifically, white-on-black rape--emerged as a critical arena in postemancipation struggles over African American citizenship. Analyzing the testimony of rape survivors, Rosen finds that white men often staged elaborate attacks meant to enact prior racial hierarchy. Through their testimony, black women defiantly rejected such hierarchy and claimed their new and equal rights. Rosen explains how heated debates over interracial marriage were also attempts by whites to undermine African American men's demands for suffrage and a voice in public affairs. By connecting histories of rape and discourses of "social equality" with struggles over citizenship, Rosen shows how gendered violence and gendered rhetorics of race together produced a climate of terror for black men and women seeking to exercise their new rights as citizens. Linking political events at the city, state, and regional levels, Rosen places gender and sexual violence at the heart of understanding the reconsolidation of race and racism in the postemancipation United States.
Charles J. Palermo
Fixed Ecstasy advances a fundamentally new understanding of Miró’s enterprise in the 1920s and of the most important works of his career. Without a doubt, Joan Miró (1893–1983) is one of the leading artists of the early twentieth century, to be ranked alongside such artists as Picasso, Matisse, Mondrian, and Pollock in his contributions to modernist painting. Still, Miró’s work has eluded easy classification. He is best known as a Surrealist, but, as Charles Palermo demonstrates, Miró’s early years in Barcelona and Paris require a revisionist account of Miró’s development and his place in modernism.
Palermo’s arguments are based on new research into Miró’s relations with the rue Blomet group of writers and artists, as well as on close readings of the techniques and formal structures of Miró’s early drawings and paintings. Chapter by chapter, Palermo unfolds a narrative that makes a cogent argument for freeing Miró from long-standing dependence on Surrealism, with its strong emphasis on dreams and the unconscious. Miró, along with associates such as Georges Bataille, Carl Einstein, and Michel Leiris, pressed representation to its limit at the verge of an ecstatic identification with the world.
Alexander V. Prokhorov
Focusing on literary authors, social reformers, journalists, and anthropologists, Francesca Sawaya demonstrates how women intellectuals in early twentieth-century America combined and criticized ideas from both the Victorian "cult of domesticity" and the modern "culture of professionalism" to shape new kinds of writing and new kinds of work for themselves.
Sawaya challenges our long-standing histories of modern professional work by elucidating the multiple ways domestic discourse framed professional culture. Modernist views of professionalism typically told a racialized story of a historical break between the primitive, feminine, and domestic work of the Victorian past and the modern, masculine, professional expertise of the present. Modern Women, Modern Work historicizes this discourse about the primitive labor of women and racial others and demonstrates how it has been adopted uncritically in contemporary accounts of professionalism, modernism, and modernity.
Seeking to recuperate black and white women's contestations of the modern professions, Sawaya pairs selected novels with a broad range of nonfiction writings to show how differing narratives about the transition to modernity authorized women's professionalism in a variety of fields. Among the figures considered are Jane Addams, Ruth Benedict, Willa Cather, Pauline Hopkins, Zora Neale Hurston, Sarah Orne Jewett, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, and Ida Tarbell. In mapping out the constraints women faced in their writings and their work, and in tracing the slippery compromises they embraced and the brilliant adaptations they made, Modern Women, Modern Work boldly reenvisions the history of modern professionalism in the United States.
Sacred Trees, Bitter Harvests: Globalizing Coffee in Northwest Tanzania: Globalizing Coffee in Colonial Northwest Tanzania
Weiss explores the dynamic relation of specific local, regional, and global understandings of value as manifested in the coffee of rural Haya communities. His investigation offers critical insight into the significance of colonial and postcolonial encounters in this region of Africa.
Paul Sheldon Davies
The components of living systems strike us as functional-as for the sake of certain ends—and as endowed with specific norms of performance. The mammalian eye, for example, has the function of perceiving and processing light, and possession of this property tempts us to claim that token eyes are supposed to perceive and process light. That is, we tend to evaluate the performance of token eyes against the norm described in the attributed functional property. Hence the norms of nature.
What, then, are the norms of nature? Whence do they arise? Out of what natural properties or relations are they constituted? In Norms of Nature, Paul Sheldon Davies argues against the prevailing view that natural norms are constituted out of some form of historical success—usually success in natural selection. He defends the view that functions are nothing more than effects that contribute to the exercise of some more general systemic capacity. Natural functions exist insofar as the components of natural systems contribute to the exercise of systemic capacities. This is so irrespective of the system's history. Even if the mammalian eye had never been selected for, it would have the function of perceiving and processing light, because those are the effects that contribute to the exercise of the visual system. The systemic approach to conceptualizing natural norms, claims Davies, is superior to the historical approach in several important ways. Especially significant is that it helps us understand how the attribution of functions within the life sciences coheres with the methods and ontology of the natural sciences generally.
Printing is not supported at the primary Gallery Thumbnail page. Please first navigate to a specific Image before printing.