Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics
A method to produce suspensions of graphene sheets by combining solution-based bromine intercalation and mild sonochemical exfoliation is presented. Ultrasonic treatment of graphite in water leads to the formation of suspensions of graphite flakes. The delamination is dramatically improved by intercalation of bromine into the graphite before sonication. The bromine intercalation was verified by Raman spectroscopy as well as by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show an almost ten times lower interlayer binding energy after introducing Br(2) into the graphite. Analysis of the suspended material by transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) revealed a significant content of few-layer graphene with sizes up to 30 mu m, corresponding to the grain size of the starting material.
Widenkvist, E., Boukhvalov, D. W., Rubino, S., Akhtar, S., Lu, J., Quinlan, R. A., ... & Jansson, U. (2009). Mild sonochemical exfoliation of bromine-intercalated graphite: a new route towards graphene. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 42(11), 112003.