Mangrove forests worldwide are under threat. Ecuador is no exception to this trend, with substantial mangrove deforestation across almost all regions. This paper synthesizes a literature review of Ecuadorian mangroves, a remote sensing analysis of the past and present extent of mangrove forests conducted for another paper, and ethnographic field research conducted in the major estuaries of northern Ecuador to present the role of mangrove wetlands in supporting local livelihoods in Ecuador's coastal communities. This paper takes a macro-micro approach, examining the global questions of mangroves and then discussing the micro situation of mangroves in Ecuador before moving onto estuarine specific profiles. All the major mangrove regions of northern Ecuador are examined with a particular emphasis on deforestation / reforestation trends, the estuarine specific forces driving and responding to these trends, as well as the livelihood response of the impacted communities. The research relies on the most current estimates of mangrove forests as well as historic calculations of mangrove area.
Hamilton, S. E., & Collins, S. (2013). Livelihood responses to mangrove deforestation in the northern provinces of Ecuador. Bosque, 34(2), 143-153.