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Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education
Marvin Lynn and Adrienne D. Dixson
New York, NY
Historically, White people, and by default whiteness (i.e., White racial hegemony/White supremacy), have played a central role in determining Black people’s 1 access to education in the United States (Anderson, 1988; Du Bois, 1973/2001; Woodson, 1933/1993). Beginning with the country’s founding, with the outlawing of teaching slaves how to read and write to the imposition of the Hampton model of industrial education, which emphasized “an ideology [that was] inherently opposed to the political and economic advancement of [B]lack southerners” (Anderson, 1988, p. 53), to state-authorized and enforced public school racial segregation (i.e., Jim Crow), White people have shaped the educational fortunes of their Black counterparts. Despite African Americans being the first racial group in the US to advocate for universal public schooling, Whites have traditionally sought to maintain an inherently separate and unequal public schooling system (Anderson, 1988).
Donnor, Jamel K., "Education as the Property of Whites: African Americans' Continued Quest for Good Schools" (2013). School of Education Book Chapters. 55.