The Many Faces of "Not Enough Time"

Victoria R. Jacobs
Susan B. Empson
Naomi Jessup
Gladys Krause, William & Mary, School of Education


"When teachers work to improve their instruction following professional development (PD), the tensions they encounter often undermine the positive effects of PD (Kennedy, 2005). To begin to explore this phenomenon, we documented and categorized the tensions articulated by 92 teachers who participated in our design study focused on the teaching and learning of fractions in grades 3–5. The study included 3 years of PD that used research-based frameworks of children’s thinking and instructional practices to encourage a vision of instruction that is responsive to children’s mathematical thinking (Jacobs et al., in press; Richards & Robertson, 2016)..."