Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




G. William Bullock, Jr.


The purpose of this study was to research the evolution of three in-school suspension programs in Virginia. In a case study format, the programs were examined with regard to why and how they were established, what changes they have undergone, and their current status and effectiveness.;The three in-school suspension programs selected for this investigation met the following standards: (a) the program was among the earliest to be established in the area, (b) the school district kept reasonably accurate records, and (c) the in-school suspension program met certain criteria to qualify under the definition outlined in this study.;The research included three methods of data collection: interviews with personal sources, district-wide informational surveys, and the systematic search for documents to undergo content.;It was concluded that the following elements are essential for an in-school suspension program to achieve maximum effectiveness: (1) thorough research into available options; (2) a wide spectrum of persons included in the planning and implementation process; (3) adequate financial support; (4) a rehabilitative focus; (5) clearly defined, measurable objectives; (6) use of a variety of disciplinary options in addition to ISS; (7) full-time, qualified, trained staff; (8) standardized, frequently monitored record keeping systems; (9) systemwide rules and procedures which are consistently enforced; (10) opportunity for students to complete regular class assignments and receive remedial assistance; (11) a comprehensive counseling component; (12) a plan for systematic student follow-up; and (13) an evaluation design which is in harmony with the program's philosophy, objectives, and strategies.;Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, 12 critical steps involved in the implementation of an in-school suspension program were outlined. Also, 51 specific recommendations for program design were presented.;Further study is needed to evaluate the influence that geographical location, size of school division, type of district (urban, suburban, or rural) and socio-economic status of the majority of families served by the system have on the origin, design, effectiveness, and evolution of in-school suspension programs. In addition, future research might be undertaken to explore the impact of programs which incorporate a majority of the recommendations offered in this study, as well as to investigate program options for chronically disruptive students who are referred repeatedly to in-school suspension.



© The Author