Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




This study investigated the effects of cooperative game play and structured interview on the anxiety levels and attitudes of prospective teachers toward persons with visual impairments. The major strategy for attitude change was based on Deutsch's theory of cooperation in social interaction utilizing the framework of Johnson and Johnson's social judgment process in conjunction with Kurt Lewin's theory of "reduction of restraining forces.".;Forty-five undergraduate education majors were randomly assigned to a control group or two experimental treatment groups for the purpose of modifying their attitudes toward persons with visual impairments.;The experimental conditions involved two groups of 15 prospective teachers each. Each member of group one functioned as a partner of a visually impaired person in playing the electronic game "Simon." They formed a dyad which collaborated to beat "Simon." Members of group two interacted with a visually impaired person during interview sessions which were structured around ten familiar topical areas. The experimental treatment involved 20 minutes of social interaction during four interaction sessions within a period of two weeks. The control group experienced no contact with the visually impaired persons.;Pretest-Posttest data were collected using the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP), Forms A and B; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, (STAI); Forms X-1 and X-2; semantic differential scales; and a 10 point amount of contact scale.;Data analysis of STAI showed the experimental subjects experienced reduction of discomfortable feelings while interacting with the visually impaired. However, there was insignificant difference between the two groups. Analysis of the ATDP showed a positive shift in attitudes toward persons with physical disabilities. Similarly, there was insignificant difference between experimental group changes notwithstanding both groups exceeded the control group on posttest mean scores. The semantic differential scales indicated close agreement between perceptions of contact and attitudes for both the nondisabled and visually impaired persons.;Since the significant effects of cooperative game play and the structured interview as goal interdependent experiences for positive attitudinal shifts were inconclusive on the basis of the study's findings, further investigation is needed.



© The Author