Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




The effectiveness of paradoxical directives (PD) as a technique was compared to client-centered (CC), rational emotive therapy (RET) and wait-list control. Subjects who received PD treatment would (1) evaluate self-rated problem relief as more greatly improved than subjects in the CC, RET and/or control group (CG); (2) rate the quality of the relationship as measured by the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (RI) higher than subjects in the CC and RET groups; (3) express a greater willingness to reveal themselves to a counselor as measured by the Willingness-to-Disclose Questionnaire (WTD) than subjects in the CC, RET, and/or CG; (4) show self-reported lower symptom distress level in depressed, anxious, and/or hostile affect than subjects in the CC, RET and/or CG.;Sixty subjects were randomly assigned into one of four groups, CC, RET, PD, and CG. Nine counselors on the same level ability matched according to counselor familiarity, preference and belief in effectiveness were assigned to the three treatments, three-counselors per group. There were three weekly 50-minute treatment sessions.;Results indicated a statistically significant difference of all three groups when compared to the CG in self-rated problem relief. No significant differences were found among the treatments or control in the RI, WTD or the depression of hostility scale of the BSI. Statistically significant differences were found when the PD group was compared to the CG on the anxiety scale of the BSI. Though it may appear significant, inspection of the means reveals fairly consistent proportionate decreases of the affect in all of the treatment groups.;It was concluded that PD are as equally effective as CC and RET as evaluated by self-report outcome criteria and proportionate decreased in negative affect after treatment.



© The Author