Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Michael F. DiPaola


The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation status of Response to Intervention (RtI) in the elementary schools (N = 35) in one urban school district in Virginia. The relationship between the implementation of the academic components of RtI, collective efficacy, parents' trust in schools, the number of referrals for special education, and student achievement was also investigated. The factor analysis revealed that RtI for Academics included Universal Screening, Effective Instruction/Tiered Interventions, and Progress Monitoring. Family Involvement was determined to be a separate construct made up of two factors, Family Engagement and Physical Presence. The implementation status of this district indicated that the schools were between early and full implementation of RtI for Academics. RtI for Academics was found to be significantly correlated with teachers' perceptions of the impact of RtI on the reduction of the number of referrals for special education (r = .41, p < .05) when controlling for the socio-economic status of the students. The district mean score for Family Engagement indicated that parents are engaged in their children's education. Parents' responses regarding their Physical Presence in the schools ranged from neutral to agree. In this study, Family Engagement was found to be significantly correlated with Physical Presence, collective efficacy, and parents' trust in schools. Parents' Trust was found to be made up of four factors: (1) Trust in the Teacher, (2) Trust in Administration, (3) Trust in High Standards, and (4) Trust in School Safety. Finally, the Multiple Regression revealed that these variables when found collectively in schools explain 27% of the variance in student achievement.



© The Author