Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)




Hiroshi Kitamura

Committee Member

Hannah Rosen

Committee Member

Andrew Fisher


The first chapter, "The Heteronormative Gaze: Early Scholarly Discourse on Third/Fourth Gender Native Americans and the Construction of the Indigenous Other," takes an intellectual history approach, focusing on early anthropological studies which contained accounts of queer/non-binary persons in Native American culture during the early twentieth century. It also examines how this academic discourse shaped the perspective on these individuals and the development of certain terminology over the last century. This chapter analyzes a range of early anthropological literature published between 1903 and 1955 in the academic journal, American Anthropologist, by a number of scholars in the field, including W. W. Hill, Elsie Clews Parsons, and others. The second chapter, "Reconstruction of the Non-Western 'Other': Sympathetic Interpretations of Race and Gender in Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone," explores the historical relationship between British imperialism and the anxieties within the Metropole surrounding Indian people and culture during the second half of the nineteenth century as it is reflected in Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone. Additionally, this chapter enumerates the ways in which Collins's representation of race and gender associated with non-western colonial subjects contrasted to that of other white Victorian observers. Despite that both chapters focus on different global regions, and employed two distinct forms of literature for the primary source analyses, the central topic of both chapters revolve around gender and sexuality in the context of British colonialism during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.



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