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This paper reports results of a recent exploratory study using the International Survey of School Counselor’s Activities with two separate but equivalent samples of guidance professionals from primary schools in Hong Kong. An exploratory factor analysis using data from one sample (n = 76) identified 7 factors representing guidance and counseling roles: counseling services; practice improvement; services to parents; prevention programs; advocacy and systemic improvement; educational and career planning; and, discipline and administration. Confirmatory factor analysis using data from the second sample (n = 76) supported this 7-factor solution. A previous international study involving school-based counselors from 10 countries had identified five underlying dimensions to the counselor role. The difference between the factor structure in the original international study and that in Hong Kong may be due to cultural factors and different counseling practices. Future research is needed with a larger sample for further confirmation.