Publication Date

June 2010



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This study examined differences among men affiliated with culturally based fraternities, men affiliated with social fraternities, and non-affiliated men on measures of consciousness of self and congruence. Data were collected in the spring of 2006 from 1,698 undergraduates, representing 46 different higher education institutions, as part of the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership (MSL). Analysis of data was conducted using MANCOVA to compare independent variable group differences across the two dependent variables, while taking quasi pre-test measures for both items into account as covariates. Significant differences among culturally based fraternity men, social fraternity men, and non-affiliated men were found on the combination of dependent variables. Further analyses revealed culturally based fraternity men scored lower than social fraternity men and non-affiliated men on both consciousness of self and congruence.