Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Entrainment of the hydroid (Sertularia argentea) and the fleshly bryozoan (Alcyonidium verrilli) in the sea suction of deep draft naval vessels (carriers) in the area of the Norfolk Naval station has been a recurring problem since the early 60's. These fouling organisms (the term fouling is used in this report to indicate clogging of hull bottom intake grates and cooling system condenser tube sheets and not the growth of organisms on any part of the vessel) are winter species, growing only in the fall and winter and not the summer. Unfortunately they are also the most abundant and widely distributed species of hydroid and bryozoan in the entire Chesapeake Bay.
The problems caused by the fouling organisms in the Pier 12 area are not a result of organisms that have grown up within Pier 12, but result from adult organisms that have been transported to the pier area by water currents. The transport of organisms into Pier 12, which acts as a settling basin, combined with deep vessel draft and vessel pre-departure procedures are the three main elements that form the fouling problem.
Fouling organisms -- Virginia -- Hampton Roads (Region); Fouling organisms -- Control; Ocean currents -- Virginia -- Hampton Roads (Harbor)
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Diaz, R. J., & Ruzecki, E. P. (1981) Study to Investigate Source and Transport Route of Marine Organisms (Hydroids and Bryozoans) in Hampton Roads and Current Velocity Profiles of the Pier 12 Area, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. https://doi.org/10.21220/V5QK5N