Document Type



Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Publication Date



In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the Pamunkey Indian tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County (Figure 1-1) and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646 (Encyclopedia Virginia, 2015). The Reservation has about 13 miles of shoreline encompassing about 1,100 acres. According to the National Wetlands Inventory (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2016), the Reservation has about 80 acres of freshwater emergent wetland and 530 acres of freshwater forested/shrub wetland. Approximately 90 people live on the Reservation and up to 600 people visit in a year.

The goal of this project that was funded by the 2017 Chesapeake Bay Small Watershed grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) is to develop strategies for coastal resiliency along the Pamunkey Indian Reservation. This was achieved by evaluating the shoreline for coastal erosion issues. This plan applies living shoreline best management practices to the entire Reservation, though shore protection plans were only developed for inhabited areas and sections with eroding upland



Shoreline management, Pamunkey River, Mattaponi River