Bacterial utilization of transient plankton-derived dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen inputs in surface ocean waters

ES Bromage
IM Kaattari
P Zwollo
SL Kaattari


These studies describe the in vitro and ex vivo generation of plasmablasts and plasma cells in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peripheral blood and splenic and anterior kidney tissues. Cells were derived either from naive trout and cultured with the polyclonal activator, Escherichia coli LPS, or from trout that had been immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Hydroxyurea was used to resolve populations of replicating (plasmablast) and nonreplicating (plasma cell) Ab-secreting cells (ASC). Complete inhibition of Ig secretion was only observed within the PBL. Both anterior kidney and splenic lymphocytes possessed a subset of ASCs that were hydroxyurea resistant. Thus, in vitro production of plasma cells appears to be restricted to the latter two tissues, whereas peripheral blood is exclusively restricted to the production of plasmablasts. After immunization with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, specific ASC could be isolated from all immune organs; however, the anterior kidney contained 98% of all ASC. Late in the response (> 10 wk), anterior kidney ASC secreted specific Ab for at least 15 days in culture, indicating that they were long-lived plasma cells. Cells from spleen and peripheral blood lost all capacity to secrete specific Ab in the absence of Ag. Late in the Ab response, high serum titer levels are solely the result of Ig secretion from anterior kidney plasma cells.