Reduction in DNA binding activity of the transcription factor Pax-5a in B lymphocytes of aged mice

WK Vogelbein
JD Shields
LW Haas
KS Reece
DE Zwerner


The toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder has recently been implicated as the etiologic agent of acute mass mortalities and skin ulcers in menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, and other fishes from mid-Atlantic U.S. estuaries. However, evidence for this association is largely circumstantial and controversial. We exposed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) to Pfiesteria shurnwayae Glasgow & Burkholder (identification based on scanning electron microscopy and molecular analyses) and compared the resulting pathology to the so-called Pfiesteria-specific lesions occurring in wild menhaden. The tilapia challenged by high concentrations (2,000-12,000 cells/mL) of P. shurnwayae exhibited loss of mucus coat and scales plus mild petecchial hemorrhage, but no deeply penetrating chronic ulcers like those in wild menhaden. Histologically, fish exhibited epidermal erosion with bacterial colonization but minimal associated inflammation. In moribund fish, loss of epidermis was widespread over large portions of the body. Similar erosion occurred in the mucosa lining the oral and branchial cavities. Gills exhibited epithelial lifting, loss of secondary lamellar structure, and infiltration by lymphoid cells. Epithelial lining of the lateral line canal LLC) and olfactory organs exhibited severe necrosis. Visceral organs, kidney, and neural tissues (brain, spinal cord, ganglia, peripheral nerves) were histologically normal. An unexpected finding was the numerous P. shurnwayae cells adhering to damaged skin, skin folds, scale pockets, LLC, and olfactory tissues. In contrast, histologic evaluation of skin ulcers in over 200 wild menhaden from Virginia and Maryland portions of the Chesapeake Bay and the Pamlico Estuary, North Carolina, revealed that all ulcers harbored a deeply invasive, highly pathogenic fungus now known to be Aphanomyces invadans. In menhaden the infection always elicited severe myonecrosis and intense granulomatous myositis. The consistent occurrence of this fungus and the nature and severity of the resulting inflammatory response indicate that these ulcers are chronic (age > 1 week) and of an infectious etiology, not the direct result of an acute toxicosis initiated by Pfiesteria toxin(s) as recently hypothesized. The disease therefore is best called ulcerative mycosis (UM). This study indicates that the pathology of Pfiesteria laboratory exposure is fundamentally different from that of UM in menhaden; however, we cannot rule out Pfiesteria as one of many possible early initiators predisposing wild fishes to fungal infection in some circumstances.