Enhanced immunogenicity of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon after removal of the bacterial cell surface-associated 57 kDa protein

CH Ryer
J vanMontfrans
KE Moody


In this study, we examined how habitat and tidal stage influence predation upon molting blue crabs Callinectes sapidus. On 3 separate occasions we monitored the survival of tethered soft crabs in each of 2 different-sized marsh creeks and 2 seagrass sites, during both low and high tides. On one of these occasions, we also tethered hard crabs. Survival was much lower for soft crabs than for hard crabs, indicating that crabs may be particularly vulnerable when they molt. In both seagrass and marsh creeks, there was a tidal influence upon soft crab survival, with greater survival during low tides. There was no generalized difference in survival of soft crabs between habitats, i.e. marsh creek versus grassbed. Survival was high in the small marsh creek, but lower in the large marsh creek. In both creeks survival remained relatively constant throughout the summer. In contrast, survival did not differ between the 2 seagrass sites and was comparable to that in the small marsh creek early in the summer, but decreased to levels comparable to the large marsh creek by summers end. In the marsh creek, micro-habitat also influenced survival, with greater survival along the creek edge micro-habitats than in the creek centers. Cannibalism was the only identifiable source of mortality among tethered crabs. These results demonstrate that where and when a crab molts may greatly influence its chances for survival.