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Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Edmund P. Green & Frederick T. Short
World Atlas of Seagrasses
University of California Press
The mid-Atlantic region of the United States includes four states: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina. It is characterized by numerous estuaries and barrier- island coastal lagoons with expansive salt marshes and seagrass beds in most shallow-water areas. There are no rocky shores . Hard substrates are either man-made [rock jetties and riprap or wood pilings) or biogeniclly generated [oyster and worm reefs). Sediments are predominantly quartz sand in shallow exposed areas with finer grain sediments in deeper or well-protected areas . Marsh peat outcroppings or cohesive sediments are sometimes found in the subtidal areas adjacent to eroding marshes. Climatic variations are large with air temperatures ranging from - 10°C to 40°C and water temperatures ranging from 0°C to 30°C. Tides are equal and semi-diurnal but relatively small in range (maximum of 1.3 m during spring tides).
Copyright University of California Press. Used with permission.
Koch, E. W. and Orth, R. J., "The Seagrasses of the Mid-Atlantic Coast of the United States" (2003). VIMS Books and Book Chapters. 160.