Journal of Functional Analysis
It is proved that a symmetry-breaking bifurcation occurs at a simple eigenvalue despite the usual transversality condition fails, and this bifurcation from a degenerate simple eigenvalue result complements the classical one with the transversality condition. The new result is applied to an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation, in which a forward transcritical bifurcation changes to a backward one when the perturbation parameter changes. Several applications in ecological and genetics models are shown. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, P., Shi, J., & Wang, Y. (2013). Bifurcation from a degenerate simple eigenvalue. Journal of Functional Analysis, 264(10), 2269-2299.