Physical Review D
We calculate the energies of quarkonium bound states in the presence of a medium of nonzero isospin density using lattice QCD. The medium, created using a canonical (fixed isospin charge) approach, induces a reduction of the quarkonium energies. As the isospin density increases, the energy shifts first increase and then saturate. The saturation occurs at an isospin density close to that where previously a qualitative change in the behavior of the energy density of the medium has been observed, which was conjectured to correspond to a transition from a pion gas to a Bose-Einstein condensed phase. The reduction of the quarkonium energies becomes more pronounced as the heavy-quark mass is decreased, similar to the behavior seen in two-color QCD at nonzero quark chemical potential. In the process of our analysis, the eta(b)-pi and Upsilon-pi scattering phase shifts are determined at low momentum. An interpolation of the scattering lengths to the physical pion mass gives a(eta b,pi) = 0: 0025(8)(6) fm and a(Upsilon,pi) = 0.0030(9)(7) fm.
Detmold, W., Meinel, S., & Shi, Z. (2013). Quarkonium at nonzero isospin density. Physical Review D, 87(9), 094504.