Date Awarded

Fall 2016

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




James R Stronge

Committee Member

Pamela Eddy

Committee Member

Loraine A Korinek


The National Center for Educational Statistics documents that most teachers in urban/city schools are White, female teachers. Differences in communication styles, culture and involvement can have a negative impact on the educational experiences of minority and male students. However, there are White, female teachers who can demonstrate the ability to engage their students that have helped to the reduce the disciplinary disparity in their schools. This study focuses on answering the overarching question, what dispositional characteristics/qualities, instructional methods, environmental parameters and classroom management techniques do White, female teachers perceive contribute to lower classroom disciplinary referrals for African American males in the elementary classroom? to answer this question, three separate interviews were conducted with each participant utilizing an established protocol, two classroom observations were conducted of each participant utilizing an observation protocol and reviewing three years of discipline data for each participant. Findings revealed students need to be actively involved in the educational process. Settings need to be structured and procedures established that allow students to demonstrate independence. Teachers need to engage parents by providing opportunities for communication through various means. There needs to be a common vocabulary that transcends cultural differences and personal bias and experiences. Lastly, teacher preparation programs need to provide students with courses that speak to the cultural and socioeconomic differences within society that are reflected in the urban/city school environment and opportunities to engage in hands-on learning opportunities within urban/city school settings with cooperative teachers.




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