Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




It was the purpose of this study to determine what effect intrinsic motivation in software programs using graphics and non-graphics has on the achievement, attitudes, attendance and depth-of-involvement of 65 underachieving students. The study was conducted in the natural school setting over the period of a semester. Data was collected on three groups, the control group (n = 33), the alternate treatment group in which students were exposed to CAI without the use of graphics as a part of the instruction, and the experimental group in which students were exposed to CAI with graphics for at least 20 minutes three times per week. An ANCOVA was done on the pre and posttest Math Computation scores of the SAT and the pre and posttest weighted raw scores of the Motivation for Schooling subtest of the SAM. An ANOVA was done on attendance data and a measure of depth-of-involvement defined as time-on-task.;Results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in the academic achievement, attitudes or attendance among the three groups. However, gains in academic achievement did approach statistical significance. Results for the measure of time-on-task did achieve statistical significance indicating greater involvement with graphic programming.;It was concluded that the use of CAI with or without graphics does not substantially improve the achievement, attitudes or attendance of underachieving students significantly more than other intensive remedial instructional techniques.



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