Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Kathy M. Evans


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sex roles and homophobia. The author also hoped to explore the relationship of age, sexual orientation, training experience, and friendship with homophobia.;Female National Certified Counselors (NCC) as certified through the National Board of Certified Counselors were studied for this project. Female NCC's were selected because NCC's on the whole have not been studied in relationship to homophobia. Also women were chosen since most research has examined men and women together.;A computer generated nationwide random sample of 200 female NCC's was sampled. Each were sent a cover letter explaining the study, the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals (IAH) and a demographic questionnaire. Two follow-ups occurred, first a follow-up postcard and second, later on a letter re-explaining the study along with the demographic questionnaire to be returned. The return rate was 49.7%. In comparing those who returned the complete survey and those only returning the demographic questionnaire it was found that the latter indicated seeing fewer gay/lesbian clients.;The data supported the following hypotheses: (1) women counselors would fall into all four levels on the IAH, (2) there would be a correlation between having taken courses and/or workshops that have discussed homosexuality and their level of homophobia/non-homophobia, (3) there would be a correlation between having friends/colleagues who have identified themselves as gay/lesbian and level of homophobia/non-homophobia, (4) there would be a correlation between sexual orientation and level of homophobia/non-homophobia, (5) the outcome measure from the IAH would be significantly predicted from the BSRI score, age, sexual orientation, training experience or friendship indicator. The data failed to support the following hypotheses: (1) there would be a correlation between sex-typed and non-sex-typed counselors and their level of homophobia/non-homophobia, (2) there would be a correlation between age and level of homophobia/non-homophobia, (3) in comparing sex-typed counselors and non-sex-typed counselors, there would be a significant difference in the percentage of those who have taken courses and/or workshops discussing homosexuality and having friends/colleagues who identify themselves as gay/lesbian.;Further study is needed to understand the effects of friendship on homophobia and the process of coming to terms with gay/lesbian friends and clients. In addition more study needs to be done on sex-role orientation with professional populations. The study also indicates a need for more homophobia reduction education with counselors.



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