Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Robert J. Hanny


The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' planning through an analysis of objectives, strategies, and indicators of student achievement to answer six research questions. The questions were related to the following topics: congruence of content in objectives and congruence of the types of assessment among teachers in school systems using the same textbook; levels of student behavior indicated in the teachers' objectives; the types of strategies and activities used to implement the objectives; the types of indicators of student achievement selected by teachers; and, the levels at which test items were written as related to the levels of behavior noted in the objectives.;The study included volunteers from five school systems which were representative of the Commonwealth of Virginia. All volunteers were teachers of general biology who were using the same textbook within their school system.;Conclusions were: There was lack of content congruence among teachers using the same textbook; teachers objectives are written at the lowest levels as described by a taxonomy of behavioral objectives; the strategies most frequently used by teachers are not those which involve students in practices which encourage thinking; teachers lack skill in writing test items. Furthermore teachers may not use forms of assessment other than paper and pencil tests.;This study has implications for preservice and inservice training of teachers in areas related to writing objectives, selecting strategies, and assessing students.



© The Author