Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




James H. Stronge


The importance of participation in budgeting for managers and its relevance to job satisfaction has been the subject of a number of studies over the last several decades. In addition, the belief systems of such managers appear to constitute a significant influence on the attitudes they hold in various social situations. Specifically, the personality variable, locus of control, utilized in this study and first introduced by Rotter, refers to the individual's perceptions of events in his/her life as the result of his/her own actions (internal control), or the consequences of such forces as fate, luck, or powerful others (external control).;The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between principals' extent of participation in budgeting, locus of control, and job satisfaction. Subjects were 191 K-12 Virginia principals from a stratified random sample of 250 who responded to a 4-part mail survey consisting of a Budgeting Participation Questionnaire, Rotter's I-E Scale, the short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction (MSQ) Questionnaire, and a demographics section.;The evidence garnered from factor analysis and multiple regression analysis in this investigation supported the following conclusions: (1) that there were no relationships found in the level of job satisfaction due to the interaction of locus of control and extent of budget participation; (2) decision influence was the only budget-related variable found to have a statistically significant relationship to job satisfaction; (3) locus of control was also found to have a statistically significant relationship to job satisfaction.;The practical significance of the findings is that only the two variables associated with how a person feels about his/her ability to influence outcomes (decision influence and locus of control) were the ones which related to job satisfaction. Perceptions and beliefs may account more for how satisfied a person is than job facets. In order to confirm this, it is recommended that future researchers should replicate this study by substituting other job facets (in place of budgeting participation) which may be deemed critical to the performance of school principals.



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