Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




James H. Stronge


Principals are accountable for juggling multiple competing tasks daily. This study explored the degrees of emphasis placed upon leadership and management behaviors of school principals in Virginia by determining the congruence of job descriptions and evaluation instruments with state and professional standards. State expectations were communicated to varying degrees by responding school divisions in both job descriptions and evaluation instruments. School divisions universally expected principals to focus upon instruction and parent and staff communication, while other state responsibilities received less attention. Organizational management that focused on facilities maintenance was communicated as an important responsibility by a majority of school divisions but was not mentioned in state standards. A high level of congruence was found between job descriptions and evaluation instruments for most Virginia state responsibilities. A majority of school divisions' evaluation instruments encompassed professional standards. However, less emphasis was revealed for responsibilities related to the larger society. Implications of this study indicate the need for Virginia school divisions to align job descriptions and evaluation instruments with state standards to support the work of principals, and for Virginia state standards to include major responsibilities required by a majority of school divisions.



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