Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




The purpose of this study was to examine the following hypothesis: The purpose, content, and method of martial arts training defined by prewar legacies tend to persist within a limited scope and context despite major postwar reforms to the contrary. This study proposed to provide data from Nippon College of Physical Education as the central focus since this institution historically held national distinction in the development of physical education in Japan.;It was indicative from the historical data available that N.C.P.E. had undergone considerable institutional changes since it began in 1891. to clarify the historical evolution and environmental forces, the analytical period was divided into the five major eras: Meiji era (1868-1912), the Taisho era (1912-1926), the Showa era (1926-1945), the postwar occupation era (1945-1951), and the contemporary period (1951-1980s).;In reviewing the evolutionary process of the martial arts curricula at N.C.P.E. from the formulative years to the present, the following points were significant from the data examined in relation to the research hypothesis of this study. (1) During the Meiji era, the institution endorsed the purpose of nation building within the national framework of the Meiji ideology of nationalism and militarism. as a result, the Bushido code of conduct for the medieval military class was incorporated into the institutional mission in order to build a student character designed to fulfill national objectives. (2) During the Taisho era, over seventy percent of the Japanese physical education teachers were graduates of this institution. The martial arts curriculum and related disciplines were expanded and intensified as active duty military officers began to be involved extensively. Despite the influx of Westernized curriculum innovations, the martial arts were hardly influenced. The central ministry continued its greater centralization policy to control liberalism. (3) During the Showa era (1926-1945), the central mission of the college centered on Showa era nationalism and the martial arts program development for the fulfillment of the Kokutai (National Polity). The content and method incorporated compulsory subjects of Shushin (morals and ethics) designed by the Thought Bureau of the Ministry of Education. A highly authoritarian and vertically oriented social system, Shigoki (physical ordeals) as a method of mental discipline, and tradition and ceremony were emphasized essentially to be in accordance with the institutional mission and fulfillment of the imperial will. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of author.) UMI.



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