Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Fred L. Adair


This study compared the personal need systems of college students who were failing academically, charged with discipline violation, or psychologically troubled with those of a control group with no record of such problems. The Picture Identification (PIT) was mailed to the 1986 and 1987 entering freshmen classes at the College of William and Mary. From the 1986 class, 531 students completed the PIT, and from the 1987 class, 544 students completed the PIT. The subjects were classified by type of problem and gender. The Female Discipline Group was too small for statistical analysis and was omitted from the report. The Academic Groups were comprised of students who had fallen below the accepted criteria for continuance at the college. The Mental Health Groups were comprised of students who attended the Center for Personal Learning and Development for three or more sessions or sought other psychological aid. The Discipline Group was comprised of students found to be in violation of the "Rules of Conduct" established by the college. The Control Group was comprised of students who had never received counseling, fallen below the minimal academic criteria, or transgressed the rules of the college.;Multiple analyses of variance were performed on all sets of PIT variables. A discriminant analysis was then conducted with the most significant ANOVA variables to determine the strongest independent discriminators among groups. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the relationships between aspects of motivation (as measured by the PIT) and adjustment to William and Mary.



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