Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Megan Tschannen-Moran


The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher sense of efficacy and its relationship to pupil control ideology in urban middle schools. The following questions were investigated: (1) Among urban middle school teachers, what is the relationship between their level of self-efficacy for teaching and their pupil control ideology? (2) Are female middle school teachers more or less efficacious than male middle school teachers? (3) Are female middle school teachers more or less humanistic than male middle school teachers?;The study included middle school teachers from 4 urban school divisions in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Teachers from 13 middle schools from the 4 school divisions participated in this study which yielded a total of 161 teachers.;A Pearson r correlation was run to investigate the relationship between teacher sense of efficacy and pupil control ideology. T-tests were run to determine if statistically significant difference existed between the pupil control ideology and teacher sense of efficacy scores of urban male and female middle school teachers. The results of the Pearson r correlation indicated that there was no statistically significant relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy and their pupil control ideology. The t-test results indicated that urban female middle school teachers were more efficacious than urban male middle school teachers. There was no statistically significant difference between the pupil control ideology mean scores of urban middle school teachers.;This study has implications for schools to provide staff development for urban male teachers to increase their sense of efficacy. A replication of this study using a larger sample and a different measure of pupil control ideology may yield different results.



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