Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




This study concerned job attitudes of faculty in higher education. The need-satisfaction model of job attitudes served as a conceptual framework. The purposes of the study we to: (1) examine the need-satisfaction and job-satisfaction linkage in the need-satisfaction model and (2) determine the effects of two job characteristics and eight personal characteristics on need fulfillment of faculty. The job variables were academic discipline and type of employing institution. The personal variables were age, length of teaching experience, level of education, locus of control, pay, rank, sex, and tenure status.;The sample consisted of full-time teaching faculty from three types of higher educational institutions in Virginia: doctorate-granting university; four-year liberal arts college; and two-year college. Faculty represented four areas: humanities; natural sciences and mathematics; social sciences; and professional and applied fields. Faculty possessed four ranks: instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor.;Data were collected through interviews. Need fulfillment was measured using a shortened form of the Maslow Satisfaction Items on Schneider (Schneider and Alderfer, 1973). This instrument determined need fulfillment on five subscales: security, social, esteem, autonomy, and self-actualization. Job satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire based on the Job Descriptive Index of Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969). This instrument determined job satisfaction on five subscales: work, supervision, pay, promotion, and co-workers. Locus of control was determined using the Rotter (1966) Internal-External Scale. Job and personal variables were reported on a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the statistical techniques of bivariate correlation, canonical correlation, multivariate analysis of variance, Duncan Multiple Range Test, and linear and multiple regression analyses.;A strong positive correlation existed between need fulfillment and job satisfaction. Thus, the significant relationship posited by the need-satisfaction model of job attitudes was supported.;There was a significant relationship between locus of control and need fulfillment. Faculty with internal orientations, i.e., those who believe that outcomes depend more on one's own actions than on luck, chance, fate, or influence of powerful others, showed higher need fulfillment scores than faculty with external locus of control. By the need-satisfaction model, faculty showing internality have higher job satisfaction than faculty with external feelings.;Total need fulfillment and autonomy need fulfillment were significantly related to institutional type. On overall need fulfillment, faculty in the two-year college showed the lowest scores; faculty in the doctorate-granting university showed the highest scores. On autonomy need fulfillment, faculty in the two-year college showed a significantly lower mean score than faculty in the other institutions.;Academic discipline significantly affected only one dimension of need fulfillment esteem. Faculty in the natural sciences and mathematics showed lower scores than faculty in the humanities, social sciences, and professional and applied fields.;The expected effects of age, length of teaching experience, level of education, pay, and rank on need fulfillment were not found. Possession of tenure did, however, affect need fulfillment. Faculty with job security had higher overall need fulfillment and higher security need fulfillment than faculty without tenure.



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