Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)




Shiwei Zhang


One of the most interesting and challenging problems in physics is understanding strongly correlated many-body systems, where strong interactions can yield many remarkable phenomena such as superfluidity in 4He, high-temperature superconductivity, etc. In order to attack these problems, we often need to reduce the complexity of the systems to simple models in hopes of getting better insights into the properties of the systems. The Hubbard model, the focus of this dissertation, is one of the most famous examples of such model, which describes a tunneling of electrons between nearest neighbor sites of a lattice with on-site interactions. This simple model is an important concept in condensed matter physics and provides rich understandings of electronic and magnetic properties of materials. Despite its simplicity, there is no general analytical solution to the Hubbard model beyond 1D.;The discovery of ultracold atoms and optical lattices opens up the possibility of emulating the Hubbard model in experiments. Optical lattices provide an ideal realization of the Hubbard model where relevant parameters can be tuned systematically. It makes theoretical studies of the Hubbard model increasingly attractive since a direct comparison between theoretical calculations and experimental results becomes more and more possible.;In this dissertation, the ground-state properties of the repulsive Hubbard model for weak to intermediate interaction strengths in two, three dimensions and their dimensional crossover are studied within the mean field theory. We show that the system exhibits unidirectional spin-density wave (SDW) order with antiferromagnetic correlations and a long wavelength modulation. The modulating wave is along the [0011-direction at low interaction strength U/t and along the [1111-direction at higher U/t. The evolution of the wavelength of the SDW is determined as a function of U/t, the density, and t⊥/t. With an analysis of the pairing of spins based on nesting and deformation of the Fermi surface, we discuss how these results can be rationalized and how a simple, predictive model can be constructed for the properties of the SDW states.



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