Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)




Charles R. McAdams


The purpose of this study was to explore how minority students are prepared to counsel White clients in two Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Engaging in a critical exploration of the experiences of minority students allowed the personal stories to create a consciousness which could lead to programmatic change. The paucity of research addressing the minority counselor/White client dyad lends viability to this study. This study used methods consistent with the critical research, including individual interviews and artifact collection. All data were analyzed through the lens of Critical Race Theory and Whiteness in an effort to conceptualize the role of race and racism on the minority student's preparation to counsel White clients. Data analysis revealed nine themes suggesting collectively that relevant curriculum focusing on the minority student/White client dyad is lacking, and that a colorblind curriculum is used to address cross-cultural interactions. Data also revealed that minority students in counseling experience microaggressions in the form of racial stereotyping, racism, and being silenced in their programs. Consequently, the students must often resort to conforming to White norms, altering how they communicate, and trying to be a model minority when working with White clients. to address these difficulties, the participating minority students and faculty members explained that minority students need to find counter spaces and programs need to increase cultural sensitivity of white faculty members. These themes allowed for the emergence of an understanding of minority students preparation to counsel White clients at two PWIs.



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