Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)




Richard L Turits

Committee Member

Paul W Mapp

Committee Member

Frederick C Corney


As the Asante emerged in the 18th century as a political dominant state and continued to expand and consolidate territory in the Gold Coast, the defeated enemies were enslaved and forcibly transported to slave markets. Simultaneously, coastal people in Fante territory convicted of crimes for violating social and cultural norms or kidnapped by private coastal agents were enslaved and taken to slave markets where European buyers purchased them. Those casualties of war and coastal captives were ripped from their families, communities, and culture in the Gold Coast, and then experienced further isolation during the middle passage. The Gold Coast captives shipped to and sold in Jamaica had to adapt to their new environment while encountering white oppression and attempts to control their agency. The slaves’ initial responses against white supremacy were isolated resistances. Despite being separated from their homes, families, and communities, Gold Coast slaves in the mid to late 18th century Jamaica changed their tactical approach against white supremacy by establishing bonds with their former enemies and different ethnic groups. From those new collectives, the isolated resistance expanded to encompass larger geographical territory. In the process, a cultural transformation emerged as Gold Coast slaves shared their customs, rituals, and traditions with Igbo, Congo, and Creole, Jamaican-born slaves to survive in Jamaica.



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