Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.Sc.)




Todd M Thrash

Committee Member

Xiaowen Xu

Committee Member

Adrian Bravo


“The chills” refers to a set of bodily sensations (goosebumps, tingling, coldness, and shivers) that sometimes accompany strong emotion (Maruskin, Thrash & Elliot, 2012). Past factor analyses of the chills identified a multi-factor, hierarchical structure, consisting of four lower-order factors (goosebumps, tingling, coldness, and shivers) and two higher-order factors (goosetingles and coldshivers). Research on the affective nomological nets of particular chills factors provided additional evidence of the discriminant validity of the two higher-order and the four-lower-order factors (Maruskin, Thrash & Elliot, 2012; Wadsworth, 2019). Despite evidence of discriminant validity, most researchers have continued to treat the chills as a unitary construct. The goal of the present study is to replicate and extend evidence that the chills consists of a set of distinguishable sensations with distinct affective correlates. Specifically, I aim to (a) replicate the factor structure of the chills and (b) further test whether the four lower-order sensations show distinct relations to core affect variables. Using the narrative recall method, the present study assessed chills sensations and core affect during recalled chills experience. Results of factor analyses replicated the factor structure of the chills established by Maruskin et al. (2012). Results of circumplex analyses provided additional evidence of the discriminant validity of higher-order and lower-order sensations. Goosetingles tended to accompany pleasant states, whereas coldshivers tended to accompany unpleasant states. Furthermore, relative to goosebumps, tingling accompanied states lower on activation and higher on pleasure. Relative to coldness, shivers accompanied states lower on displeasure and higher on activation. These findings are consistent with but refine the conclusions of Maruskin et al. (2012) and point to the value of incorporating the affect circumplex in understanding the chills.




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