Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)




Melvin P Ely

Committee Member

Hannah Rosen

Committee Member

Andrew Fisher


Policies of Purity: Anti-miscegenation Policies and Multiracial Tribes in Virginia and North Carolina This paper explores the official policies and laws implemented in North Carolina and Virginia in the early twentieth century that restricted the freedoms of Afro-Indigenous tribes. Specifically, this essay discusses acts like the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 and its effects on the Monacan people of Virginia as well as various policies in North Carolina that restricted access to equal education for the Lumbee people. A secondary goal of this essay is to explain how far-reaching the effects of these policies have been on multiracial tribes. Perceptions of Performance: Evolving Media Portrayals of Black Sideshow Performers, 1852-1950 This paper discusses the ways in which evolving cultural attitudes affected media depictions of Black sideshow performers throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Two different sets of performers are used as case studies: Millie and Christine McKoy, conjoined twins born into slavery in North Carolina, and George and Willie Muse, albino brothers born in Virginia. By comparing and contrasting their lives and their portrayals in the media, this essay aims to show how increasing interest in eugenics and Jim Crow attitudes affected how performers were advertised and discussed.



© The Author

Available for download on Saturday, August 26, 2028

Included in

History Commons