Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)




Thomas J Ward

Committee Member

Jodi Fisler

Committee Member

Pamela Eddy


Transparent design has been promoted as a teaching pedagogy to promote student success, especially among marginalized student populations. This study seeks to understand the impact of participation in a transparently designed course on low-income students self-reported levels of academic self-efficacy and employer-valued skills in Washington state. This research furthers the understanding of low-income student success on campus while also providing a rigorous independent review of the Transparency in Learning and Teaching initiative’s (TILT) findings. The study uses data previously collected by the Washington State TILT Higher Ed research team in the Spring 2019 semester (n = 395) through a pre- and post- test survey methodology. Using a repeated measure ANOVA, results are compared by group (low-income and not-low-income) for a change in means over time and the interaction of both time and group. The findings of the study indicate that transparent design does not have an effect on the development of academic self-efficacy or a meaningful impact on the development of employer-valued skills. The results may be explained by issues with instrumentation, a lack of implementation fidelity throughout the study, or the sample’s demographics. This study identifies the need for a significant reexamination of prior findings by other researchers and the need for rigorous replication of TILT research. Additional areas related to the low-income student experience are also discussed.



© The Author