Date Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)




Adrienne Petty

Committee Member

Hiroshi Kitamura

Committee Member

Charles McGovern


Racing for Rights and Peace: Mary Church Terrell and the Origins of Transnational Black Feminism This paper explores the transnational human rights and peacebuilding contributions of Black feminist transnational activists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using the case study of Mary Church Terrell. Focusing on Terrell’s work within transnational women’s peace organizations, this work discusses how these trailblazing activists created a pathway for intersectional race-conscious human rights activism that unfolded throughout the twentieth century and continues today. This paper also examines how race informed different understandings of peace within women’s transnational peace organizations. Defeating Massive Resistance and the Color of Memory: Black and White Histories of Public-School Desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia This paper investigates white parent’s and white children’s experiences with Massive Resistance and school closures during the late 1950-1960 period in Norfolk, Virginia. This work explores the economic and social factors that led to the fall of Massive Resistance and opened schools for integration in Norfolk and explains why Norfolk is a unique site for analysis of Massive Resistance and school integration. This paper also explores white women’s memories of this period and includes oral history interviews of several former white students. By comparing the actions of white parents and memories of white students to the violent realities of segregation and Massive Resistance and to Black student memories, this work seeks to demonstrate the ways race shapes memory.



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