Virginia Institute of Marine Science
A sampling program was undertaken from July 1973 to June 1974, to assess the effects of construction of the second Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel on the benthic communities in the vicinity. Macrobenthic animals (defined as those retained by a 1.0 mm mesh sieve) were quantitatively sampled along three transects perpendicular to the new tunnel and in and around the fill "borrow areas" nearby on Willoughby Bank and Sewell's Point Spit. The effects of construction practices on the benthic communities·was assessed through interpretation of faunal composition, sediment characteristics, and bottom profiles.
Boesch, D. F., & Rackley, D. H. (1974) Final report on environmental effects of the second Hampton Roads bridge-tunnel construction to Virginia Department of Highways : effects on benthic communities. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William & Mary. https://scholarworks.wm.edu/reports/2764