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Evolutionary ecology of marine invertebrate larvae
Oxford University Press
Tyler Carrier, Adam Reitzel, and Andreas Heyland
The life histories of marine invertebrates are incredibly diverse and provide a wealth of opportunities to develop and test hypotheses about how and why modes of reproduction, development, and behavior evolve within and among lineages. With respect to the evolution of reproductive and developmental mode, phylogenetic, adaptive, and functional hypotheses presented over the past century have predominantly focused on the evolution of reproductive traits (e.g., free spawning, brooding, encapsulation; nutritional mode of larvae (e.g., planktotrophy and lecithotrophy; and developmental form (e.g., larval morphology; direct and indirect development. Frequently, but not exclusively, these hypotheses have been tied to changes in per-offspring investment and influential models of per-offspring investment often serve as a framework for studies of the evolution of developmental modes. Phylogenetic assessment of the evolution of character states within lineages has revealed frequent shifts among life histories traits.
Allen, J. D., Reitzel, A. M., and Jaeckle, W., Asexual reproduction of marine invertebrate embryos and larvae. In. Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. (2018). Edited by Tyler J. Carrier, Adam M. Reitzel, and Andreas Heyland: Oxford University Press.