Document Type

Data

Department/Program

Virginia Institute of Marine Science

VIMS Department/Program

Coastal Hydrodynamics and Sediment Dynamics (CHSD)

Publication Date

5-2020

Abstract

This work complements the efforts by the Virginia Tech Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering in SERDP MR18-1233, as described in the project’s final report (Stark et al, 2020) and in the Master’s thesis by Dennis Kiptoo (Kiptoo, 2020). One of the objectives of the project was to improve calibration of the Bluedrop free fall penetrometer (FFP) with high resolution sampling of a variety of sediment types. To accomplish this, a series of 9 stations over 12 cruises were visited along the York River, an estuary in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay, and in the Pamunkey River, which feeds into the York River. In 2018, four predominantly muddy sites (Pamunkey, Claybank, NWS, and Ferry Point Secondary Channel) and four predominately sandy sites (Kings Creek, Sarah’s Creek, Coast Guard, and Goodwin Island) were visited. In 2019, two of the muddy sites (Pamunkey and Claybank) were revisited along with a new muddy site (Indian Fields). Exact locations for these sites, along with Salinity, Temperature, and Depth at the station collected using a Sontek Castaway CTD, are described in the attached VIMS data report CHSD-2020-01(Massey et al, 2020). Detailed methodologies, including data processing, and figures from the processed data can also be found in the report. The Bluedrop FFP was deployed numerous times at each site and the data were retained and processed by Virginia Tech.

At each of the sites, a GOMEX box core was used to collect several sediment grab samples of which sub-cores were collected to minimize edge effects that would disturb the sediment/water interface. At each site, the top ten centimeters, if possible, from two 4” diameter sub-cores were sliced in 1 cm increments and combined for later analysis in the lab for grain size (sand, silt, and clay) distribution and presence of resilient fecal pellets (data stored under Grainsize) as well as percent moisture and percent volatile content by loss on ignition at 550 degree C (data stored under Moisture). Two additional 4” diameter cores were analyzed for sediment erodibility using a GUST Microcosm (data stored under GUST), and two rectangular cores were imaged by digital X-ray analysis (data stored under Xray). In 2019, the same types of cores were collected at Indian Fields and Claybank by divers and analyzed alongside the cores collected from the GOMEX grabs.

At each of the muddy sites, several gravity core samples were collected. One core was imaged by digital X-ray analysis (data stored under Xray) and sliced and analyzed for grain size (sand, silt, and clay) distribution (data stored under Gravity Core). The other gravity cores samples were retained by Virginia Tech personnel for analyses done in their lab (Kiptoo, 2020). The YR190522 cruise to Claybank included 4 additional locations along a transect across the river. Each of these additional locations include several Bluedrop FFP deployments and gravity core samples which were retained by Virginia Tech personnel for later analyses done by their lab (Kiptoo, 2020). The gravity core would not penetrate sufficiently into sandy sediment, therefore there are no gravity cores from those sites. Vibracore samples were collected at two sites (Coast Guard Station and Sarah’s Creek) during YR180806. Digital X-ray images were taken from a core from each site after it was sliced lengthwise (data stored under Xrays along with Photos). The cores were then subsampled in 2 cm intervals for the top 20 cm and 5 cm intervals thereafter and analyzed for grain size (sand, silt, and clay) distribution (data stored under grain size), percent moisture and percent volatile content by loss on ignition at 550 degrees C (data stored under Moisture). Additional vibracores were retained by Virginia Tech Personnel from each site for later analysis at their lab. At each of the other sandy sites, samples were also collected for Virginia Tech personnel using either the GOMEX grab or a Ponar grab.

When possible, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data were collected while anchored at the site of the sediment collection station, and ADCP transect data were also collected on the same day. One ADCP transect at each site ran perpendicular to the river flow over the station, and at least 2 transects were collected upriver and 2 downriver. If it was not possible to collect the ADCP transects on the same day due to weather, time constraints, or instrument issues, the site was revisited on a different day (data stored under ADCP or as a separate cruise called ADCP transects). ADCP can be used to look at the general velocity flow field around the sediment sample station as well as provide an approximate measure of the bathymetry along the transects. Typically, Chirp transects were collected on the same day as ADCP transects, and the data were retained by Virginia Tech personnel. One additional cruise (YR190523) was conducted, but not included in this data set, where Virginia Tech personnel conducted Chirp Transects and Bluedrop FFP deployments at each of the gravity core sites along the 5 station transect at Claybank from the previous day.

Description

Files & Description

  • YR180710 Pamunkey MUD: Includes field logbook, photos, and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for ADCP Anchor, CTD, Grain Size, Gravity Core, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray
  • YR180711 Claybank MUD: Includes field logbook and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts) for ADCP anchor and transects, CTD, Grain Size, Gravity Core, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray
  • YR180726 NWS MUD: Includes field logbook, photos, and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for ADCP anchor and transects, CTD, Grain Size, Gravity Core, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray
  • YR180802 Kings Creek SAND: Includes field logbook and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts) for CTD, Grain Size, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray
  • YR180802 Sarah's Creek ADCP transects: Includes field logbook and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts) for ADCP transects, grainsize, and CTD
  • YR180803 Coast Guard SAND: Includes field logbook, photos, and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for ADCP anchor and transects, CTD, Grain Size, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray
  • YR180806 Coast Guard and Sarah's Creek Vibracores: Includes field logbook, photos and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for CTD, Grain Size, Moisture, and X-ray for both Coast Guard Station and Sarah's Creek Vibracore samples
  • YR180807 Pamunkey ADCP Transects: Includes field logbook and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts) for ADCP transects and CTD
  • YR180808 Goodwin Island SAND: Includes field logbook, photos and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for ADCP anchor and transects, CTD, Grain Size, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray
  • YR180809 Ferry Point Secondary channel MUD: Includes field logbook, photos and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for ADCP anchor and transects, CTD, Grain Size, Gravity Core, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray
  • YR180809 King's Creek ADCP Transects: Includes field logbook and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts) for ADCP transects and Grain Size (collected by Ponar grab)
  • YR190520 Indian Fields MUD (includes diver cores): Includes field logbook, photos and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for ADCP anchor, CTD, Grain Size, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray collected with both a boxcore and by divers, also a gravity core
  • YR190522 Claybank MUD (includes diver cores and gravity core transect): Includes field logbook, photos and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts where applicable) for ADCP anchor and transects, CTD and 5 gravity cores (along cross river transect). Grain Size, GUST, Moisture, and X-ray collected with both a boxcore and by divers. Also additional grainsize for 4 stations along transect
  • YR190709 Indian Fields ADCP Transects: Includes field logbook and folders with raw and processed data (including scripts) for ADCP transects

DOI

doi:10.25773/2rze-fg21

Keywords

York River, Pamunkey River, CTD, Sediment Grain Size, GUST erodibility, Sediment Percent Moisture, Sediment X-ray cores, ADCP transects, ADCP anchor stations, Gravity core, boxcore, Vibracore, Bluedrop

Associated Publications

Kiptoo, Dennis K. (2020), In-situ geotechnical characterization of soft estuarine surficial sediments using a portable free fall penetrometer, [Data]. University Libraries, Virginia Tech. https://doi.org/10.7294/YZRV-QJ06

Massey, Grace M., Wright, Cristin L., Friedrichs, Carl T., Stark, Nina and Kiptoo, Dennis. (2020), VIMS 2018-2019 Potomac River Estuary Data in Support of: Improved Penetrometer Performance in Stratified Sediment for Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring and Management of Submerged Munitions Sites (SERDP project: MR18-1233), VIMS Data Report CHSD-2020-01, DOI: xxxxxxxxxx IN PRESS

Stark, Nina, Grace M. Massey and Carl T. Friedrichs (2020) Improved Penetrometer Performance in Stratified Sediment for Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring and Management of Submerged Munitions Sites (SERDP project: MR18-1233 Final Report). Will be available at:

https://serdp-estcp.org/Program-Areas/Munitions-Response/Munitions-Underwater/MR18-1233/MR18-1233

Funding

SERDP project: MR18-1233

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