Date Thesis Awarded


Access Type

Honors Thesis -- Open Access

Degree Name

Bachelors of Arts (BA)




Jody Allen

Committee Members

Jackson Sasser

Adrienne Petty

JaJuan Johnson


his is the story of two enslaved Black males, both named London, who lived in 18th and 19th century Williamsburg, Virginia. One was a body servant, which served a similar function to a personal attendant, to the sons of Carter Braxton, when they were students at William & Mary. The second London attended the Bray school, one of the first schools for free and enslaved African Americans in the continental United States. He was enslaved by a woman …. who owned and operated a tavern in the town. Since both London’s are largely absent from the archives, there is no way to fully account for their lives, but there is a way to imagine what their lives might have been like. This thesis argues that something can be learned about their existence by considering them through the experiences of their enslaved contemporaries, James Hambleton Christian, a body servant, and tavern worker Gowan Pamphlet, who, for different reasons, are present in the archives.