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As school counselors have adapted to changing policy and social structures, their beliefs, knowledge, and practices have evolved. Over the past two decades, a body of survey research has examined school counselors’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices, though no systematic review exists. In this review, we synthesize and evaluate survey research on the knowledge, beliefs, and practices relevant to the implementation of a standards-based comprehensive school counseling model in the United States. We identify the most salient findings, evaluate the research, identify the most rigorous studies, discuss their findings, and provide recommendations for future research. Considering the recent changes to how funding is distributed to states and schools within the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, such research is both timely and necessary to help clarify and increase the role school counselors play in helping schools achieve the goals of legislation.