Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Independent molecular markers based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA were developed to provide positive identification of istiophorid and xiphiid billfishes (marlins, spearfishes, sailfish, and swordfish). Both classes of markers were based on amplification of short segments (
marlin, tuna, genetic identification
McDowell, Jan and Graves, John, Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers for specific identification of istiophorid and xiphiid billfishes (2002). Fishery Bulletin, 100(3), 537-544.