Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Journal of Parsitology
SSurf clams (Spisula solidissima) from along the Virginia and North Carolina coasts are infected with an immature anisakid nematode worm which does not cause economic concern until infected with the protozoan hyperparasite, Urosporidium spisuli sp. n. When the protozoan sporulates the spores give the worm a brownish-black appearance, thus making it readily visible in clam tissues. Light and electron microscope studies of the spores reveal characteristics which differentiate the protozoan from other species of Urosporidium. All spores are killed after 5 to 30 min at 100 C; therefore, the consumer would not ingest live spores when eating commercially prepared clam meat.
Perkins, Frank O.; Zwerner, D. E.; and Dias, Robert K., The Hyperparasite, Urosporidium spisuli sp. n. (Haplosporea), and Its Effects on the Surf Clam Industry (1975). Journal of Parsitology, 61(5), 944-949.