Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Infectious diseases are economically detrimental to aquaculture, and with continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture, the importance of managing infectious diseases will likely increase in the future. Here, we use evolution of virulence theory, along with examples, to identify aquaculture practices that might lead to the evolution of increased pathogen virulence. We identify eight practices common in aquaculture that theory predicts may favor evolution toward higher pathogen virulence. Four are related to intensive aquaculture operations, and four others are related specifically to infectious disease control. Our intention is to make aquaculture managers aware of these risks, such that with increased vigilance, they might be able to detect and prevent the emergence and spread of increasingly troublesome pathogen strains in the future.
Hematopoietic-Necrosis-Virus; Spot-Syndrome-Virus; Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus; Trout Oncorhynchus-mykiss; Mareks-Disease Virus; Gyrodactylus-salaris Malmberg; Penaeus litopenaeus vannamei; Bacterial Kidney-Disease; Emerging Viral Diseases; Wild Atlantic Salmon
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
DAK was funded by the RAPIDD Program of the Science and Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security and Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, and by the Institute of General Medical Sciences (R01GM105244), National Institutes of Health as part of the joint NSF-NIH-USDA Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Program. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We thank Tiffany Bogich, Mike Boots, Rachel Breyta, Marine Brieuc, Troy Day, Greg Dwyer, Gary Fornshell, Caroline Friedman, Kyle Garver, Alison Kell, Shannon Ladeau, Scott LaPatra, Jennie Lavine, Jamie Lloyd-Smith, Kerry Naish, Kim Pepin and Mark Zwart for discussions that helped shape this manuscript.
Kennedy, D. A., Kurath, G., Brito, I. L., Purcell, M. K., Read, A. F., Winton, J. R. and Wargo, A. R. (2016), Potential drivers of virulence evolution in aquaculture. Evol Appl, 9: 344–354. doi:10.1111/eva.12342