Virginia Institute of Marine Science
The rapid expansion of human activities threatens ocean-wide biodiversity. Numerous marine animal populations have declined, yet it remains unclear whether these trends are symptomatic of a chronic accumulation of global marine extinction risk. We present the first systematic analysis of threat for a globally distributed lineage of 1,041 chondrichthyan fishes-sharks, rays, and chimaeras. We estimate that one-quarter are threatened according to IUCN Red List criteria due to overfishing (targeted and incidental). Large-bodied, shallow-water species are at greatest risk and five out of the seven most threatened families are rays. Overall chondrichthyan extinction risk is substantially higher than for most other vertebrates, and only one-third of species are considered safe. Population depletion has occurred throughout the world's ice-free waters, but is particularly prevalent in the Indo-Pacific Biodiversity Triangle and Mediterranean Sea. Improved management of fisheries and trade is urgently needed to avoid extinctions and promote population recovery.
LIFE-HISTORY; MARINE POPULATIONS; CLIMATE-CHANGE; MEDITERRANEAN SEA; PELAGIC SHARKS; FIN TRADE; FISHERIES; BIODIVERSITY; RECOVERY; PACIFIC
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Conservation International Sarah L Fowler; Packard Foundation Sarah L Fowler; Save Our Seas Foundation Nicholas K Dulvy; UK Department of Environment and Rural Affairs Sarah L Fowler; US State Department Nicholas K Dulvy,; Sarah L Fowler US Department of Commerce Nicholas K Dulvy; Marine Conservation Biology Institute Sarah L Fowler; Pew Marine Fellows Program Sarah L Fowler; Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Foundation Nicholas K Dulvy; Zoological Society of London Nicholas K Dulvy; Canada Research Chairs Program Nicholas K Dulvy; Natural Environment Research Council, Canada Nicholas K Dulvy; Tom Haas and the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation Sarah L Fowler; Oak Foundation Sarah L Fowler; Future of Marine Animal Populations, Census of Marine Life Sarah L Fowler; IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation Sarah L Fowler; UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee Sarah L Fowler; National Marine Aquarium, Plymouth UK Sarah L Fowler; New England Aquarium Marine Conservation Fund Sarah L Fowler; The Deep, Hull, UK Sarah L Fowler Blue Planet Aquarium,; UK Sarah L Fowler Chester Zoo,; UK Nicholas K Dulvy, Sarah L Fowler Lenfest; Ocean Program Sarah L Fowler WildCRU,; Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, University of Oxford,; UK Sarah L Fowler Institute for Ocean Conservation Science, University of Miami Sarah L Fowler; Flying Sharks
Dulvy, Nicholas K. and Musick, John A., Extinction risk and conservation of the world's sharks and rays (2014). ELIFE, 3.