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Virginia Institute of Marine Science
C. Y. Kuo, T. M. Younos, editors
Proceedings of the Chesapeake Bay Research Conference: Effects of Upland and Shoreline Land Use on the Chesapeake Bay
Alum sludge, generated in the processing of surface water .for drinking water supplies, has traditionally been discharged into nearby streams in Virginia and elsewhere. Alum sludge contains aluminum in an insoluble and non-toxic form. There remains concern, however, that alum sludge may have a negative impact on receiving waters.
Roberts, Morris H. and Diaz, Robert J., "Impacts of Alum Sludge on Tidal Freshwater Streams" (1986). VIMS Books and Book Chapters. 155.