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Document Type

Book Chapter


Virginia Institute of Marine Science


Deborah S. Wilt

Publication Date


Book Title

Proceedings Tenth National Shellfish Sanitation Workshop


Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Shellfish Sanitation Branch


Oysters from the James displayed variations in Kepone residue levels related to water temperature and their spawning cycle. Oyster depuralion rates were related to temperature. In summer the "biological half. life" of Kepone in oysters was about one week, while during the winter about 40 days were required for residue levels to decline by 50 per cent. Residues in blue crabs varied as a function of sex, males having considerably higher residues than females. Fin fish levels from the James varied greatly, with residue levels being dependent on species and length of residence for migratory fishes .. Average Kepone residues in freshwater fish species, which are resident their entire Jives, varied from 0.04 to 2.4 μg/g. Long-term resident estuarine fin fish varied less than freshwater species, with mean concentrations between 0.6 and 2.7 μg/g. Short-term resident marine fish species, e.g. American shad and menhaden, exhibited low residues averaging less than 0.1 μg/g, while spot and croaker, which reside in the river for longer periods, bad higher residues averaging 0.81 and 0.75 μg/g respectively.

In the Bay, croaker, spot, trout and flounder all exhibited similar residue patterns showing lower residue levels at stations further up-Bay from the Kepone source in the James River.

Kepone® Residues In Chesapeake Bay Biota