Recent studies in the United States on parasites and pathogens of marine mollusks, with emphasis on diseases of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin
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Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Parasitology and Pathology of Marine Organisms of the World Ocean
U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service
NOAA Technical Report NMFS 25
Morphological, systematic, faunal, and life cycle studies predominated research on marine parasites and pathogens in the United States before World War II. Much was primarily basic or academic in nature. Since then it has grown and diversified under pressure or efforts to: I) Increase yields or invertebrate-based fisheries, In nature and under controlled conditions; and 2) understand , protect, and improve the resources, estuarine and marine environments, and human health and welfare. Over the last 30 yr pathobiologlcal investigations of economically and ecologically important marine Invertebrates have broadened into submlcroscopcal anatomy (TEM and SEM technlques), physiology, Immunology, genetics, host-parasite ecology, Interactions between environmental pollution and disease, and prophylaxis and treatment of their diseases. Importation of foreign oysters (and other shellfish species) and their transfer and transplantation between the coastal regions, provinces, and states of North America have resulted in growing disease problems and a corresponding interest In the parasitology and pathology of the mollusks involved. It has also spawned efforts to control introductions and transfers. Two major diseases have been found to interfere with production or native Atlantic oysters along the Gulf and/or Atlantic coasts of the United States. These are the "Dermo" or "fungus" disease, caused by the apicomplexan protlstan Perkinsus marinus (both coasts) and "MSX" or Delaware Bay disease, caused by the sporozoan Haplosporidium nelsoni (the Atlantic coast-prlncipally in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays). Knowledge of lhese important epizootic-produclng diseases Is reviewed and discussed, along with that or other parasites and pathogen. of molluskan shellfish lo North America, and an extensive References section of the results or recent research on molluskan parasites and diseases is presented.
Parasitology, diseases of oysters
Hargis, William J. Jr., "Recent studies in the United States on parasites and pathogens of marine mollusks, with emphasis on diseases of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin" (1985). VIMS Books and Book Chapters. 42.