Master Sampling Spreadsheet and Timeline for MUDBED Project

Document Type



Virginia Institute of Marine Science

VIMS Department/Program

Coastal Hydrodynamics and Sediment Dynamics (CHSD)

Publication Date


Spatial Information

All samples contained within (37º39’N, 76º54’W), (37º16’N, 76º20’W), (37º8’N, 76º24’W), (37º34’N, 76º0’W)


The MUlti-Disciplinary Benthic Exchange Dynamics (MUDBED) project was a >15-year collaboration of multiple VIMS scientists in characterizing sediment transport within the York River estuary.


The extensive MUDBED data set hinges around the deployment of acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) tripods in the Gloucester Point and Claybank regions of the York River estuary. These deployments usually lasted approximately 3 months, during which calibration cruises, sediment surveys, and other tripod and tower deployments occurred. The calibration cruises consisted of a water column profiler equipped with and ADV, CTD, and LISST, among other instruments. The sediment surveys included measurements of grain size distribution and other sediment properties, including sediment erodibility. Various other instruments such as LISSTs, AWACs, and PCADPs were also deployed on similar tripod structures for prolonged amounts of time. Lastly, the CHSD tower piling in the York River, served as a stationary platform for deployments of stacked ADVs, LISSTs, and light sensors. The attached files include a master sampling spreadsheet as well as a sampling timeline, to serve as a guide to navigating the large data set. Each folder in the dataset represents a single tripod/tower deployment or sampling cruise. Each folder includes a string to represent the date of deployment/sampling. “YR” (representing “York River”) followed by six numbers which represent the date of sampling in the format YYMMDD. For example, August 31, 2014 would be YR140831. All data for the MUDBED project can be accessed by starting at https://scholarworks.wm.edu/yorkriverdata/ and then entering the appropriate deployment/sampling code (such as YR140831). List of files: • MUDBEDProject_SamplingLog – This Excel file includes all sampling from the MUDBED project. The excel file includes multiple tabs. The Gloucester Point Log, Claybank Log, and Yorktown Log tabs divide all sampling by location in chronological order. Each type of deployment/cruise are also separated into individual sheets (Longitudinal Cruises, Calibration Cruises, Sediment Surveys, Tripods, and Tower). Each sheet shows which instruments were used or data that was collected during the individual deployment/cruise. Different types of deployments/cruises are color-coded with tripod deployments in blue, tower deployments in purple, sediment surveys in red, calibration cruises in green, and longitudinal cruises in orange. The names of the ScholarWorks entry for each deployment/cruise are also included.

• SamplingTimeline – This Excel file plots all of the deployment/cruises on a timeline to determine which cruises and surveys occurred during each deployment. There are timelines included for the Gloucester Point and Claybank sampling areas.




Sediment transport, settling velocity, suspended size distribution, acoustic backscatter, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, ADCP, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, ADV, LISST, CTD, conductivity, temperature, depth, chlorophyll a, TSS, total suspended solids

Associated Publications

Associated seabed publications (most recent to oldest):

Wright, C.L., C.T. Friedrichs, and G.M. Massey, 2022. Controls on sediment bed erodibility in a muddy, partially-mixed tidal estuary. Frontiers in Earth Science. In press. (Will be downloadable at https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/earth-science)

Wright, C.L., G.M. Massey, P.J. Dickhudt, and C.T. Friedrichs, 2021. Supporting data: controls on sediment bed erodibility in a muddy, partially-mixed tidal estuary, York River, Virginia. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William & Mary. https://doi.org/10.25773/nm2b-hy57

Wright, C.L., 2021. Controls on estuarine sediment bed erodibility: insights from the York River estuary. M.S. Thesis, School of Marine Science, William & Mary, 230 p. https://www.proquest.com/docview/2572607807 (will also be downloadable at https://scholarworks.wm.edu/etd)

Dickhudt, P.J., C.T. Friedrichs, and L.P. Sanford, 2011. Mud matrix solids fraction and bed erodibility in the York River, USA, and other muddy environments. Continental Shelf Research, 31 (10S): S3-S13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2010.02.008

Dickhudt, P.J., C.T. Friedrichs, L.C. Schaffner, and L.P. Sanford, 2009. Spatial and temporal variation in cohesive sediment erodibility in the York River estuary: a biologically-influenced equilibrium modified by seasonal deposition. Marine Geology, 267: 128-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2009.09.009

Dickhudt, P.J., 2008. Controls on erodibility in a partially mixed estuary, York River, Virginia. M.S. Thesis, School of Marine Science, William & Mary, 230 p. https://doi.org/10.25773/v5-63ty-az33

Associated ADV (and other water column) publications (most recent to oldest):

Fall, K.A., C.T. Friedrichs, G.M. Massey, D.G. Bowers, and S.J. Smith, 2021. The importance of organic content to fractal floc properties in estuarine surface waters: Insights from video, LISST, and pump sampling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126: e2020JC016787. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC016787

Fall, K.A., G.M. Massey, and C.T. Friedrichs, 2020. The importance of organic content to fractal floc properties in estuarine surface waters: insights from video, LISST, and pump sampling. Supporting data. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William & Mary. https://doi.org/10.25773/7gbc-6739

Bowers, D.G., E.M. Roberts, A.M. Hoguane, K.A. Fall, G.M. Massey, and C.T. Friedrichs, 2020. Secchi disk measurements in turbid water. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 125(5): 2020JC016172. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC016172

Fall, K.A., 2020. Influence of suspended particle size and composition on particle image processing, estuarine floc fractal properties, and resulting estuarine light attenuation. PhD Dissertation. School of Marine Science, William & Mary, 224 p. https://doi.org/10.25773/v5-nn75-t992

Tarpley, D., 2020. Temporal variability in cohesive sediment dynamics in a partially mixed estuary, the York River estuary, Virginia, USA: a numerical study developed from observations. School of Marine Science, William & Mary, 220 p. https://doi.org/10.25773/v5-1v9q-hn18

Fall, K.A., C.K. Harris, C.T. Friedrichs, J.P. Rinehimer, and C.R. Sherwood, 2014. Model behavior and sensitivity in an application of the cohesive bed component of the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System for the York River Estuary, VA. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 2: 413-436. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse2020413

Cartwright, G.M., 2013. Application of acoustics and optics for the characterization of suspended particulate matter within an estuarine observing system. PhD Dissertation. School of Marine Science, William & Mary, 302 p. https://doi.org/10.25773/v5-52qd-1490

Cartwright, G.M., C.T. Friedrichs, and S.J. Smith, 2013. A test of the ADV-based Reynolds flux method for in situ estimation of sediment settling velocity in a muddy estuary. Geo-Marine Letters, 33: 477-484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-013-0340-4

Fall, K.A., 2012. Relationships among fine sediment settling and suspension, bed erodibility, and particle type in the York River estuary, Virginia. M.S. Thesis, School of Marine Science, William & Mary, 134 p. https://doi.org/10.25773/v5-hfz9-5r79

Cartwright, G.M., C.T. Friedrichs, and L.P. Sanford, 2011. In situ characterization of estuarine suspended sediment in the presence of muddy flocs and pellets. In: P. Wang, J.D. Rosati, and T.M. Roberts (eds.), Coastal Sediments 2011, World Scientific, p. 642-655. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814355537_0049 also downloadable at http://bit.ly/3zQczVg)

Cartwright, G.M., C.T. Friedrichs, P.J. Dickhudt, T. Gass, and F.H. Farmer, 2009. Using the acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) in the MUDBED real-time observing system. OCEANS 2009, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 1428-1436. https://doi.org/10.23919/OCEANS.2009.5422146 (also downloadable at https://bit.ly/3fixzdH)

Friedrichs, C.T., G.M. Cartwright, and P.J. Dickhudt, 2008. Quantifying benthic exchange of fine sediment via continuous, non-invasive measurements of settling velocity and bed erodibility. Oceanography, 21(4): 168-172. https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2008.14≥. mm

Publication Statement

Cristin L. Wright ORCID IC: 0000-0002-5807-3785

Grace M. Massey ORCID ID: 0000-0001-7936-1586

Carl T. Friedrichs ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1810-900X


NSF grants OCE-0536572, OCE-1061781, and OCE-1459708.

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